The Oratory of the Forty Martyrs takes its name from a painting, datable to the 8th century, that adorns the apse. It extols the devotion of the Christian soldiers condemned to die in the frozen waters of a lake at Sebaste in Armenia, during the persecution of Diocletian. The interior is quadrangular. On the right-hand wall it also has a fresco of St. Anthony the Hermit, while the floor preserves fragments of marble paving from the Middle Ages. Originally this space was probably the entrance hall to the Ramp of Domitian, which led to the Imperial Palaces on the Palatine. With the Christianisation of the Forum the building became an oratory.
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